Clinical and Therapeutic Aspects of Brazilian Native Bothrops Envenomation in Nine Horses
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In this retrospective study, clinical records of nine horses with a diagnosis of Bothrops envenomation were investigated. The accidents were classified as severe (5/9), moderate (2/9), or mild (2/9) according to the adapted bothropic snakebite severity score (BSSS). All snakebites were on the head region. The main clinical signs were local edema, blood coagulation disorders, and respiratory distress. The whole-blood clotting time (WBCT) was prolonged in all horses, and five horses presented with uncoagulable blood. All horses received specific snake antivenom according to the BSSS (six vials for severe, four vials for moderate, and two vials for mild accidents), and emergency tracheotomy was required in six horses because of respiratory distress. One horse died after eight days of hospitalization, whereas the others were discharged after nine days of hospitalization. The BSSS plus the WBCT were useful in determining the prognosis and the amount and frequency of antivenom therapy. Snakebite accidents are emergency cases; therefore, rapid and efficient therapeutic intervention will reflect positively on the prognosis.
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