Evaluation of the aesthetic effect, enamel microhardness and trans-amelodentinal cytotoxicity of a new bleaching agent for professional use containing trimetaphosphate and fluoride
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This study evaluated the effects of calcium gluconate (CaGlu), sodium fluoride (NaF), sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP), and NaF/TMP when added to a 35% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) bleaching gel on the color change, enamel hardness, penetration and cytotoxicity trans-amelodentinal. Bovine enamel/dentin disks (n = 288) were divided according to the bleaching gel: 35% H2O2; 35% H2O2 + 0.05% NaF; 35% H2O2 + 0.25% TMP; 35% H2O2 + 0.05% NaF + 0.25% TMP; 35% H2O2 + 0.1% NaF + 1% TMP and 35% H2O2 + 2% CaGlu. The bleaching gels were applied thrice (40 min/session) at 7-day intervals between each application. Then, the color change, percentage of surface hardness loss (%SH), cross-sectional hardness (ΔKHN), trans-amelodentinal penetration of H2O2, cell viability and morphology (MDPC-23 odontoblast-like cells), alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and deposition of mineralization nodules were determined. The data were submitted to ANOVA, followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test (p < 0.05). All bleaching gels showed significant color changes after treatment (p < 0.001). Mineral loss (%SH and ΔKHN) and H2O2 penetration were lower for 35% H2O2/0.1% NaF/1% TMP; 35% H2O2/2% CaGlu, meanwhile, showed higher values, compared to the other groups (p < 0.001). Cell viability was around 9%, except for the bleaching gel containing 35% H2O2/0.1% NaF/1% TMP with 12.8% (p < 0.05). ALP was higher for groups containing TMP compared to other whitening gels (p < 0.05). The formation of mineralization nodules was greater for gels containing NaF/TMP or CaGlu (p < 0.05). The alterations of cell morphology were intense for all bleaching gels. It was concluded that the addition of NaF/TMP in-office bleaching did not interfere in bleaching efficacy, reduced enamel demineralization, H2O2 penetration and cytotoxicity.
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