Review of nano-technology applications in resin-based restorative materials
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Objective: Nanotechnology has progressed significantly and particles as small as 3 nm are being employed in resin-based restorative materials to improve clinical performance. The goal of this review is to report the progress of nanotechnology in Restorative Dentistry by reviewing the advantages, limitations, and applications of resin-based restorative materials with nanoparticles. Materials and Methods: A literature review was conducted using PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Embase databases. In vitro, in vivo and in situ research studies published in English between 1999 and 2020, and which focused on the analysis of resin-based restorative materials containing nanoparticles were included. Results: A total of 140 studies were included in this review. Studies reported the effect of incorporating different types of nanoparticles on adhesive systems or resin composites. Mechanical, physical, and anti-bacterial properties were described. The clinical performance of resin-based restorative materials with nanoparticles was also reported. Conclusions: The high surface area of nanoparticles exponentially increases the bioactivity of materials using bioactive nanofillers. However, the tendency of nanoparticles to agglomerate, the chemical instability of the developed materials and the decline of rheological properties when high ratios of nanoparticles are employed are some of the obstacles to overcome in the near future. Clinical significance: In spite of the recent advancements of nanotechnology in resin-based restorative materials, some challenges need to be overcome before new nano-based restorative materials are considered permanent solutions to clinical problems.