A Review on Bio-functionalization of β-Ti Alloys
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β-Ti alloys are known for their very low Young’s modulus, excellent physical properties, and biocompatibility, hence they are considered as attractive metallic materials for long-term bone implant applications. However, β-Ti alloys are poor wear resistant and typically bioinert materials, thus their surfaces need to be modified to have wear resistant and bioactive properties. In this paper, an overview is given to the available surface functionalization techniques to improve the biological properties of β-Ti alloys. Mechanical, physical, chemical, and electrochemical treatments, as well the immobilization of bio-functional molecules are discussed. Bioactivity, biocompatibility, haemocompatibility, wear and/or corrosion, behaviour of the β-Ti alloys can be improved using a proper surface modification technique, by altering the surface composition and topography or removing the undesired material from the alloy surface.