Species exclusion and coexistence in a noisy voter model with a competition-colonization tradeoff
MetadataShow full item record
We introduce an asymmetric noisy voter model to study the joint effect of immigration and a competition-dispersal tradeoff in the dynamics of two species competing for space in regular lattices. Individuals of one species can invade a nearest-neighbor site in the lattice, while individuals of the other species are able to invade sites at any distance but are less competitive locally, i.e., they establish with a probability g≤1. The model also accounts for immigration, modeled as an external noise that may spontaneously replace an individual at a lattice site by another individual of the other species. This combination of mechanisms gives rise to a rich variety of outcomes for species competition, including exclusion of either species, monostable coexistence of both species at different population proportions, and bistable coexistence with proportions of populations that depend on the initial condition. Remarkably, in the bistable phase, the system undergoes a discontinuous transition as the intensity of immigration overcomes a threshold, leading to a half loop dynamics associated to a cusp catastrophe, which causes the irreversible loss of the species with the shortest dispersal range.