A correlation between anaesthesia-related cardiac arrest outcomes and country human development index: A narrative review
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Studies have demonstrated gaps between developed and developing countries in the quality of surgical and anaesthesia care. The aim of this review was to provide a critical overview of documented outcomes from the 2010s of anaesthesia-related cardiac arrest events in countries with largely differing Human Development Indexes (HDIs). The HDI ranges from 0 to 1, representing the lowest and highest levels of development, respectively. Most related studies conducted between 2011 and 2020 showed low rates (from 0 to 215 per million anaesthetics) of anaesthesia-related mortality up to the 30th postoperative day in very high-HDI countries (HDI ≥ 0.800) and higher rates (from 0 to 915.4 per million anaesthetics) in high-HDI countries (HDI: 0.700–0.799). Low-HDI countries (HDI < 0.550) showed higher anaesthesia-related mortality rates, which were greater than 1500 per million anaesthetics. The anaesthesia-related mortality rates per quartile demonstrated a gap in the anaesthesia-related safety between very high- and high-HDI countries, and especially between very high- and low-HDI countries. Anaesthesia-related cardiac arrest showed similarly high survival proportions in very high-HDI countries (45.9% to 100%) and high-HDI countries (62.9% to 100%), while in a low-HDI country, the anaesthesia-related cardiac arrest survival was lower (22.2%). Our review demonstrates large gaps among countries with largely differing HDIs regarding anaesthesia-related cardiac arrest outcomes in the last decade. This finding highlights the need to improve patient safety care in low-HDI countries. Anaesthesia patient safety has improved in high-HDI countries, but there is still a persistent gap in the health care systems of these countries and those of very high-HDI countries. Our review also found a consistent improvement in anaesthesia patient safety in very high-HDI countries.