Sustainability analysis of the production of early stages of the atlantic forest lambari (Deuterodon iguape) in a public hatchery at a rainforest conservation area
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Protected areas have been used worldwide to conserve natural resources. Nevertheless, economic activities to provide income for communities living within and surrounded by conservation areas remain an issue. This study aimed to assess the sustainability of a Deuterodon iguape hatchery, situated within an Atlantic Rainforest Park, to leverage grow-out farming of this small native fish, affording income and food security for local families. We have used a set of indicators of economic, social, and environmental sustainability. The initial investment is about US$ 40,000, which should see a return in ~2 years. The internal rate of return is close to 50%, including the externality costs, which is attractive for both public and private investors. The hatchery generated few direct jobs, but the workforce can be recruited from the community, and the hatchery can enable the establishment of several small grow-out farms, leveraging the development of indirect jobs and self-employment. The system had a low environmental impact, showing a minor release of pollutants, a low risk for biodiversity, and absorption of 18 g of CO2 equivalent per thousand post-larvae produced, contributing to the struggle against climate change. Therefore, the D. iguape hatchery demonstrates the potential of combining biodiversity conservation and income generation, meeting the Sustainable Development Goals of Agenda 2030.