Phylogenetic relationships of Pseudis and Lysapsus (Anura, Hylidae, Hylinae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences
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The previous uncertain placement of Lysapsus and Pseudis within the neobatrachians was recently resolved by molecular and morphological studies, which supported them as members of the Hylinae subfamily. Their inter- and intrageneric relationships, however, have long been under debate and no studies shed light on these questions. Aiming to elucidate such questions, this paper used 3.2 kb comprising the mitochondrial genes 12S, tRNA valine, 16S and cytochrome b, and the nuclear exon 1 coding for rhodopsin, to all representatives of both genera (except to two subspecies of Pseudis paradoxa). The results identified three major clades: the clade 1 was composed by Lysapsus species and subspecies; clade 2 included the subspecies of the Pseudis paradoxa (Pseudis paradoxa paradoxa, P. paradoxa platensis and P. paradoxa occidentalis), P. fusca, P. bolbodactyla and P. tocantins, and clade 3 was composed by Pseudis southern Brazil species (Pseudis cardosoi and P. minuta). As closely related taxa we found Pseudis minuta + P. cardosoi; P. tocantins + P. fusca, and the subspecies within each genus. Evidence that Pseudis is not monophyletic with respect to Lysapsus was found and we suggest Lysapsus to be a junior synonym of Pseudis. Based on pair-wise comparison among gene sequences, we also suggest that the subspecies of Pseudis paradoxa and Lysapsus limellum must be considered as full species. (c) the Willi Hennig Society 2007.