GASES DE NITROGÊNIO REATIVO COMO PRECURSORES DO AEROSSOL ATMOSFÉRICO: REAÇÕES DE FORMAÇÃO, PROCESSOS DE CRESCIMENTO E IMPLICAÇÕES AMBIENTAIS
Alternative titleREACTIVE NITROGEN GASES AS PRECURSORS OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL: FORMATION REACTIONS, GROWTH PROCESSES AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS
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The increased emissions of reactive nitrogen gases from anthropogenic sources to the atmosphere has been pointed out as responsible for triggering a series of environmental problems at the local, regional, and global scale. Among the many consequences associated with the excess of reactive nitrogen in the environment is the increase of atmospheric aerosol formation. In this way, the present review article aims to provide an overview of the main aerosol formation reactions from the reactive nitrogen gases, their growth processes, and removal from the atmosphere. The paper also addresses the implications of increasing the atmospheric aerosol load, including effects on the planet’s radiative forcing, cloud formation and precipitation, macronutrient dispersion, visibility and human health. The possible relationship between the long-term exposure to these pollutants and COVID-19 fatality is also discussed. The need for more information related to reactive nitrogen gases and atmospheric aerosols is urgent since they act on fundamental processes on planet Earth and their quantity and composition have been abruptly changed over the last hundred years. Therefore, further investigations on this topic should be stimulated and better integrated in order to guide normative decisions and the delineation of possible solutions.