Assessment of Donana National Park contamination in Procambarus clarkii: Integration of conventional biomarkers and proteomic approaches
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Aquatic ecosystems of Donana National Park (DNP) were monitored using Procambarus clarkii as bioindicator in four campaigns carried out between 2003 and 2004 to assess environmental quality possibly threatened by agrochemicals used in nearby areas. An integrated approach was carried out, by combining the responses of well-established biomarkers and the massive analysis of biological effects at the proteomic level. In sites potentially polluted, lower catalase, glucose-6-P dehydrogenase, and esterase activities, and higher malondialdehyde, metallothionein and glutathione levels were found. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis resolved >2500 gill spots, and image analysis detected that 35 showed significant intensity differences between the reference site and the other seven sites studied. The superiority of proteomic approaches was clearly recognized in our study since four different protein expression patterns were established based in the fold-number of up-/down-regulation of the 35 differentially expressed proteins. Sites located within Donana Biological Reserve were essentially free of contaminants and those near the DNP limits were only slightly polluted. The higher proteomic responses found at the upper "Rocina" and "Partido" courses indicate that non-persistent agrochemicals are mainly used in Donana surroundings. The highest responses corresponded to rice growing areas placed between the Guadiamar stream and the Guadalquivir River, according to the extended and intensive use of agrochemicals in such areas. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.