Biological Approaches for Extraction of Bioactive Compounds From Agro-industrial By-products: A Review
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Bioactive compounds can provide health benefits beyond the nutritional value and are originally present or added to food matrices. However, because they are part of the food matrices, most bioactive compounds remain in agroindustrial by-products. Agro-industrial by-products are generated in large quantities throughout the food production chain and can—when not properly treated—affect the environment, the profit, and the proper and nutritional distribution of food to people. Thus, it is important to adopt processes that increase the use of these agroindustrial by-products, including biological approaches, which can enhance the extraction and obtention of bioactive compounds, which enables their application in food and pharmaceutical industries. Biological processes have several advantages compared to nonbiological processes, including the provision of extracts with high quality and bioactivity, as well as extracts that present low toxicity and environmental impact. Among biological approaches, extraction from enzymes and fermentation stand out as tools for obtaining bioactive compounds from various agro-industrial wastes. In this sense, this article provides an overview of the main bioactive components found in agroindustrial by-products and the biological strategies for their extraction. We also provide information to enhance the use of these bioactive compounds, especially for the food and pharmaceutical industries.