Bound states of attractive Bose-Einstein condensates in shallow traps in two and three dimensions
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Using variational and numerical solutions of the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii equation for attractive interaction (with cubic or Kerr nonlinearity), we show that a stable bound state can appear in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a localized exponentially screened radially symmetric harmonic potential well in two and three dimensions. We also consider an axially symmetric configuration with zero axial trap and a exponentially screened radial trap so that the resulting bound state can freely move along the axial direction like a soliton. The binding of the present states in shallow wells is mostly due to the nonlinear interaction with the trap playing a minor role. Hence, these BEC states are more suitable to study the effect of the nonlinear force on the dynamics. We illustrate the highly nonlinear nature of breathing oscillations of these states. Such bound states could be created in BECs and studied in the laboratory with present knowhow.