Atomic Bose-Einstein condensation with three-body interactions and collective excitations
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The stability of a Bose-Einstein condensed state of trapped ultra-cold atoms is investigated under the assumption of an attractive two-body and a repulsive three-body interaction. The Ginzburg-Pitaevskii-Gross (GPG) nonlinear Schrodinger equation is extended to include an effective potential dependent on the square of the density and solved numerically for the s-wave. The lowest collective mode excitations are determined and their dependences on the number of atoms and on the strength of the three-body force are studied. The addition of three-body dynamics can allow the number of condensed atoms to increase considerably, even when the strength of the three-body force is very small compared with the strength of the two-body force. We study in detail the first-order liquid-gas phase transition for the condensed state, which can happen in a critical range of the effective three-body force parameter.