Cytotoxic effects and pulpal response caused by a mineral trioxide aggregate formulation and calcium hydroxide
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Purpose: To evaluate the in vivo pulpal response after pulpotomy with different capping agents. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxic effects of both materials were assessed by applying them on culture of pulp cells. Methods: For the in vivo test, the coronal pulp of 28 teeth of dogs was mechanically removed and the root pulps were capped with the following dental materials: Group 1: Pro-Root MTA (PRMTA); and Group 2 (control): calcium hydroxide saline paste (CH). After 60 days, the animals were sacrificed and the teeth processed for histological analysis. In the in vitro test, experimental extracts obtained from both capping agents were applied on the cultured MDPC-23 odontoblast-like cells. Results: In the root pulps capped with PRMTA or CH, coagulation necrosis partially replaced by dystrophic calcification as well as tubular dentin matrix laid down by elongated pulp cells was observed. None or mild inflammatory response occurred beneath the capped pulpal wound. Regarding the pulpal response, PRMTA and CH presented no statistical difference. However, the teeth capped CH presented greater healthy pulp loss which resulted in convex shape of the hard barrier than PRMTA. When applied on the cultured cells, it was demonstrated that PRMTA and CH solutions decreased the cell metabolic activity by 9.9% and 29.4%, respectively. CH caused higher cytotoxic effects to the MDPC-23 cells as well as deeper healthy pulp tissue loss than PRMTA. However, similar sequence of healing occurred after pulpotomy with both dental materials.