Electrical conductivity of silicate glasses with tetravalent cations substituting Si
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The effects of substituting Si by M4+ cations in soda-lime silica glasses were analyzed by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 1 Hz-1 MHz. The glass composition was (mol%) 22Na(2)O center dot 8CaO center dot 65SiO(2)center dot 5MO(2), M = Si, Ti, Ge, Zr, Sn, and Ce. Although the Na+ concentration in the glasses is constant, the Zr-containing glass exhibits the highest dc conductivity and the lowest activation energy, while the Ce-containing glass exhibits the lowest conductivity. The activation energies obtained experimentally agree with those obtained by a theoretical equation proposed by Anderson and Stuart. The differences in electrical conductivity presented by the several M-containing glasses are attributed to the effect that the M4+ ion has on the mobility of the diffusing Na+ ion. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.