Detached leaf culture: Viability to evaluate 2,4-D toxicity symptoms in cotton apex leaves
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To study the viability of detached leaf culture technique, studies were carried out with detached leaves from cotton apex (true trilobed leaves). The prepared leaves were sprayed with 2,4-D amine and ester, at rates of 10, 30, 70, and 100% of the recommended doses. Detached leaves without herbicide spray were used as controls. Simultaneously, a greenhouse experiment was conducted with the same treatments as used for the detached leaves experiment. Toxicity was measured through a 0-to-5 grading according to the percentage of affected leaf area in the detached leaves experiment or examining the affected rate of whole plant as indicated in the greenhouse. Results showed that the ester form of the herbicide induced earlier and more severe toxicity symptoms in detached leaves and greenhouse grown plants. Positive and significant correlations (p < 0.001) were found between toxicity results obtained at 7 and 14 days after application in detached leaves and greenhouse plants (r = 0.97 and 0.92, respectively). Negative, significant correlations (p < 0.005) were found between the toxicity levels found at 7 and 14 days after application in detached leaves and dry matter of cotton plants grown in the greenhouse (r = -0.92 and -0.92, respectively).