Structural and electrical characterization of semiconducting barium-lead-titanate ceramics
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BaTiO3 is usually doped to achieve the temperature stability required by device applications, as well as to obtain a large positive temperature coefficient anomaly of resistivity (PTCR). Uniform distribution of dopants among the submicron dielectric particles is the key for optimal control of grain size and microstructure to maintain a high reliability. The system Ba0.84Pb0.16TiO3 was synthesized from high purity BaCO3, TiO2, PbO oxide powders as raw materials. Sb2O3, MnSO4 and ZnO were used as dopants and Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 as grain growth controllers. Phase composition was analyzed by using XRD and the microstructure was investigated by SEM. EDS attached to SEM was used to analyze phase composition specially related to abnormal grain growth. Electrical resistivities were measured as a function of temperature and the PTCR effect characterized by an abrupt increase on resistivity.