Mechanistic insights into the reaction between VO2+ and propene based on a DFT study
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Calculations based on density functional theory have been carried out to investigate the free energy profiles at singlet and triplet electronic states associated with the gas-phase ion/molecule reactions of VO2++ ((1)A(1)/(3)A) with propene. The complex potential energy Surfaces, including Six reaction pathways (three dehydrogenation and three oxygen transfer processes), have been explored and analyzed. Along dehydrogenation reactive channels, three final products can be obtained: V(OH)(2)(+) ((1)Sigma(+)/(3)Sigma(-)) and allene (path Dehl), being the most kinetically and thermodynamically favorable reaction pathway, V(OH)(2)(+) ((1)Sigma(+)/(3)Sigma(-)) and propyne (path Deh2),and VO2+ ((1)A(1)/(3)A) and H-2 plus allene (path Deh3). The oxyoenation processes can yield its final products Vo(+) ((1)Delta/(3)Sigma) and acetone (path Ox1), VO+ ((1)Delta/(3)Sigma 2) and propanaldehyde (path Ox2), and VO+ ((1)Delta/(3)Sigma) and H-2 and propenaldehyde (path Ox3). Both paths Deh1 and Deh2 are associated with two consecutive hydrogen transfer processes from carbon atoms of the propene fragment to vanadyl oxygen atoms, while in path Deh3 the second hydrogen migration takes place to the vanadiurn atorn followed by the formation ola hydrogen molecule. Both paths Ox1 and Ox2 comprise an intramolecular hydrogen transfer between the ethylenic moiety of the propene fragment, while two consecutive hydrogen transfer processes take place from the propene fragment to oxygen and vanadium atoms of the vanadyl moiety along path Ox3. Three crossing points between both electronic states take place along path Deh1 (CP-Deh1) and path Deh2 (CP-Deh2) and in the entrance channel of oxidation processes (CP-Ox). A comparison with previous works on related reactions VO2+ + C2H4, VO2 + C2H6, and VO2+ + C3H8 allows us to rationalize the different reactivity patterns.