Growth and metabolism of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg 1887) juveniles fed diets containing different protein, lipid and carbohydrate levels
MetadataShow full item record
To verify the potential of lipids and carbohydrates to spare dietary protein and to understand the intermediary metabolism of interaction of these nutrients in pacu juveniles, an experiment was carried out to evaluate pacu physiological and performance parameters. The experimental design was completely randomized with 12 treatments in a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, consisting of diets containing two digestible protein levels (200 and 230 g kg(-1) PD), two lipid levels (40 and 80 g kg(-1)) and three carbohydrate levels (410, 460 and 500 g kg(-1)). Fish-fed 230 g kg(-1) digestable protein (DP) showed increased glycaemia, decreased hepatic glycogen, as well as a smaller intake index and better feed conversion ratio. The higher dietary lipid level (80 g kg(-1)) reduced protein intake and serum protein concentration, increased liver and body fat content, but did not affect growth. At a lipid level of 80 g kg(-1), the increase in dietary carbohydrate levels promoted greater weight gain (WG), crude protein intake (CPI) and better feed conversion ratio (FCR). For fish fed diets containing 40 g kg(-1) lipid, the best energy-productive values (EPV) were obtained at 460 g kg(-1) carbohydrate. Increased levels of the main nutrients in the diets reduced the levels of serum triglycerides, while the increase in energy concentration increased the hepatosomatic (HSI) and glycaemia index values. Pacu used lipids as effectively as carbohydrates in the maximization of protein usage, as long as dietary protein was at a level of 230 g kg(-1) DP. The physiological parameters indicated that the best balance between the DP, dietary lipid and carbohydrate levels within the ranged this trial was obtained at 230, 40 and 460 g kg(-1), respectively, without lower growth.