Isolation and chemical characterization of PwTx-II: A novel alkaloid toxin from the venom of the spider Parawixia bistriata (Araneidae, Araneae)
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Brazil has many species of spiders belonging to Araneidae family however, very little is known about the composition, chemical structure and mechanisms of action of the main venom components of these spiders. The main objective of this work was to isolate and to perform the chemical characterization of a novel beta-carboline toxin from the venom of the spider Parawixia bistriata, a typical species of the Brazilian 'cerrado'. The toxin was purified by RP-HPLC and structurally elucidated by using a combination of different spectroscopic techniques (UV, ESI-MS/MS and H-1 NMR), which permitted the assignment of the molecular structure of a novel spider venom toxin, identified as 1-4-guanidinobutoxy-6-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline, and referred to here as PwTx-II. This compound is toxic to insects (LD50 = 12 +/- 3 eta g/mg honeybee), neurotoxic, convulsive and lethal to rats (LD50 = 9.75 mg/kg of male Wistar rat). (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.