Effect of Supragingival plaque control in smokers and never-smokers: 6-month evaluation of patients with periodontitis
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Background: the effect of supragingival plaque control on clinical signs of periodontitis is controversial, particularly when smoking habits are considered. This study evaluated the clinical effects of supragingival plaque control on clinical signs of periodontitis in smokers and never-smokers.Methods: the following data were collected for 25 never-smokers and 25 smokers at baseline and 30, 90, and 180 days: visible plaque index (VPI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL). After baseline examinations, supragingival scaling was performed. Oral hygiene practices were reinforced and reevaluated weekly during the experimental period. Linear models adjusted for clustering of observations within individuals were used for statistical analysis.Results: Reductions in VPI were significant for both groups, with no intergroup differences. GBI at baseline was similar between groups, and at 30, 90, and 180 days, smokers had a lower GBI than never-smokers. Significant reductions were observed in PD for shallow (1 to 3 mm), moderate (4 to 5 mm), and deep sites (>= 6 mm) in both groups. CAL was significantly greater in smokers throughout the study, but gains in attachment were similar for both groups (0.71 to 1.00 mm). BOP reductions were similar in both groups.Conclusions: Supragingival plaque control resulted in significant changes in clinical parameters associated with gingivitis and periodontitis. Smoking did not affect results, regardless of initial PD.