Central moxonidine on water and NaCl intake
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In this study we investigated: (a) the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of moxonidine (an alpha(2)-adrenergic and imidazoline receptor agonist) on the ingestion of water and NaCl induced by 24 h of water deprivation; (b) the effects of i.c.v. injection of moxonidine on central angiotensin II (ANG II)- and carbachol-induced water intake; (c) the effects of the pre-treatment with i.c.v, idazoxan (an alpha(2)-adrenergic and imidazoline receptor antagonist) and RX 821002 (a selective alpha(2)-adrenergic antagonist) on the antidipsogenic action of central moxonidine. Male Holtzman rats had stainless steel cannulas implanted in the lateral cerebral ventricle. Intracerebroventricular injection of moxonidine (5 and 20 nmol/1 mu l) reduced the ingestion of 1.5% NaCl solution (4.1 +/- 1.1 and 2.9 +/- 2.5 ml/2 h, respectively vs. control = 7.4 +/- 2.1 ml/2 h) and water intake (2.0 +/- 0.6 and 0.3 +/- 0.2 ml/h, respectively vs. control = 13.0 +/- 1.4 ml/h) induced by water deprivation, Intracerebroventricular moxonidine (5 nmol/1 mu l) also reduced i.c.v. ANG Ii-induced water intake (2.8 +/- 0.9 vs. control = 7.9 +/- 1.7 ml/1 h) and i.c.v. moxonidine (10 and 20 nmol/1 mu l) reduced i.c.v. carbachol-induced water intake (4.3 +/- 1.7 and 2.1 +/- 0.9, respectively vs. control = 9.2 +/- 1.0 ml/1 h). The pre-treatment with i.c.v. idazoxan (40 to 320 nmol/1 mu l) abolished the inhibitory effect of i.c.v, moxonidine on carbachol-induced water intake. Intracerebroventricular idazoxan (320 nmol/1 mu l) partially reduced the inhibitory effect of moxonidine on water deprivation-induced water intake and produced only a tendency to reduce the antidipsogenic effect of moxonidine on ANG Ii-induced water intake. RX 821002 (80 and 160 nmol/1 mu l) completely abolished the antidipsogenic action of moxonidine on ANG Ii-induced water intake. The results show that central injections c: moxonidine strongly inhibit water and NaCl ingestion. They also suggest the involvement of central alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors in the antidipsogenic action of moxonidine. (C) 1999 Elsevier B.V.