Citrus and coffee strains of Xylella fastidiosa induce Pierce's disease in grapevine
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Xylella fastidiosa causes citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) disease in Brazil and Pierce's disease of grapevines in the United States. Both of these diseases cause significant production problems in the respective industries. The recent establishment of the glassy-winged sharpshooter in California has radically increased the threat posed by Pierces disease to California viticulture. Populations of this insect reach very high levels in citrus groves in California and move from the orchards into the vineyards, where they acquire inoculum and spread Pierce's disease in the vineyards. Here we show that strains of X. fastidiosa isolated from diseased citrus and coffee in Brazil can incite symptoms of Pierce's disease after mechanical inoculation into seven commercial Vitis vinifera varieties grown in Brazil and California. Thus, any future introduction of the CVC strains of X. fastidiosa into the United States would pose a threat to both the sweet orange and grapevine industries. Previous work has clearly shown that the strains of X. fastidiosa isolated from Pierce's disease- and CVC-affected plants are the most distantly related of all strains in the diverse taxon X. fastidiosa. The ability of citrus strains of X. fastidiosa to incite disease in grapevine is therefore surprising and creates an experimental system with which to dissect mechanisms used by X.,fastidiosa in plant colonization and disease development using the full genome sequence data that has recently become available for both the citrus and grapevine strains of this pathogen.