Flow injection AAS determination of Cd, Cu, and Pb at trace levels in wine using solid phase extraction
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A comparative study is reported between C-18 bonded silica gel and powdered polyethylene (PE) as sorbent for Cd, Cu, and Pb determination using ammonium diethyldithiophosphate (ADTP) as the complexing agent in a flow injection system. The complexes were formed in 0.14 mol L-1 HNO3 and processed in a simple flow system comprising a peristaltic pump, a manual injector-commutator, and a sorbent-packed minicolumn. Ethanol was selected as the eluent and analytes in the eluate were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimum concentration of the complexing agent was 0.1% (m/v) ADTP for Cu and Pb determination using either C-18 or PE, and 0.25% (m/v) ADTP for Cd determination using PE. The sample loading flow rates were 5.0, 3.6, and 3.0 mL min(-1) for Cu, Pb, and Cd, respectively. The best elution flow rate was 6.5 mL min(-1). For a 60-sec preconcentration time, the sampling rate was 40 h(-1) and the enrichment factors of 33, 36, and 11 times (C-18) or 18, 22, and 23 times (PE) were obtained for Cu, Pb, and Cd, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) were 1.6 mug L-1 Cu, 11 mug L-1 Pb, and 2.0 mug L-1 Cd using C-18 or 2.9 mug L-1 Cu, 19 mug L-1 Pb, and 1.0 mug L-1 Cd using PE, respectively. The relative standard deviations (n = 12) were typically <2%, <2%, and <6% for Cd, Cu, and Pb, respectively. The recoveries of Cd, Cu, and Pb added to wine samples varied from 96-99%, 97-102%, and 90-99%, respectively, using C-18 or PE. Accuracy was checked for Cd, Cu, and Pb determination in six wine samples digested by block digestor and open-vessel microwave-assisted digestion systems. The results revealed that C-18 was more efficient for Cu and Pb determination, while PE was the best sorbent for Cd.