Collapse and Color Changes in Grapefruit Juice Powder as Affected by Water Activity, Glass Transition, and Addition of Carbohydrate Polymers
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Physicochemical and structural properties of grapefruit juice powder were investigated as affected by the addition of maltodextrins of two dextrose equivalent (DE) and gum arabic. Freeze-dried powdered juices were equilibrated at different vapor pressure atmospheres, giving samples with water activity between zero and 0.84. The mechanical properties of the powders were assessed by confined compression, and the compressed samples were subjected to color analysis. The maximum force attained during the compression and the color coordinates were related to water activity and glass transition temperature, and a single value of Delta T = T -aEuro parts per thousand T (g) could be taken as the critical limit to the safe storage of the powders, regardless of their composition. The results indicated that from the perspective of the time at which deleterious changes would take place in powders stored at certain ambient conditions and exposed to certain rate of water uptake, the collapse of the powder would precede browning development.