Morphological and quantitative aspects of nodule formation in hemolymph of the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794)
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Insects manifest effective immune responses that include both cellular and humoral components. Morphological and quantitative aspects of cellular and Immoral cooperation during nodule formation in Chrysomya megacephala hemolymph against Saccharomyces cerevisae yeast cells were demonstrated for the first time. The analyses were performed in non-injected larvae (NIL), saline-injected larvae (SIL) and yeast-injected larvae (YIL). The hemolymph of injected groups was collected 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, 36, or 48-h post-injection. Morphological aspects of YIL nodulation were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Quantitative analyses consisted of total (THC) and differential hemocyte counts (DHC) in all the groups and total yeast count (TYC) in YIL, which were performed in an improved Neubauer chamber. Nodule formation was initiated at approximately 2-h post-injection. Twelve hours after the injection, TEM revealed the presence of an amorphous membrane, at the same time that circulating hemocyte number decreased significantly contrasting the increase of yeast number. Our results showed the ability of C megacephala hemolymph to perform humoral encapsulation when hemocyte population is insufficient to eliminate the microorganisms, warranting consideration in future investigations on the relative roles played by cellular and humoral elements of innate immunity of this calliphorid. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.