Longer wavelengths of light improve the growth, intake and feed efficiency of individually reared juvenile pikeperch Sander lucioperca (L.)
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We tested the effects of monochromatic light on the specific growth rate (SGR), feed intake and feed efficiency (FE) of juvenile pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (L.). Pikeperch were reared individually for 42 days in aquaria covered with blue, green, yellow or red gelatin filters or white paper (control; n=5). Linear regression analysis indicated a significant positive effect of longer wavelengths of light on the condition factor (CF), FE and SGR. The final weight, SGR and CF were significantly higher in fish reared under red than under white light, and FE was better under green, yellow and red light than under white light (Dunnett's post hoc test, P < 0.05) while blue was comparable to white light in terms of the measured parameters. After the growth trial, the spectral sensitivity of photoreceptor cells in the retina was tested using microspectrophotometry, which revealed the presence of rods with lambda(max) at ca. 530 nm and two cone classes, absorbing maximally at ca. 535 and 603 nm, all containing a porphyropsin-based pigment. These results suggest that the presence of mid and long wavelength-sensitive cones enhances visual sensitivity under mid-wavelength and long-wavelength environments, and thus supports the finding that longer wavelengths of incoming light can improve FE and SGR of the cultivated pikeperch.