Microcystin-producing genotypes from cyanobacteria in Brazilian reservoirs
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of new oligonucleotide primers (mcyB-F/R, mcyB-F/R-A, and mcyB-F/R-B) designed from Brazilian cyanobacteria for the detection of microcystin-producing genotypes in 27 environmental samples from water reservoirs and 11 strains of Microcystis. Microcystins were found using HPLC in all 11 strains and 19 of the environmental samples. The new oligonucleotide primers amplified fragments of microcystin-producing genes, including the eight environmental samples in which no microcystins were detected by HPLC, but which presented amplified fragments, thereby demonstrating the existence of microcystin-producing genes. The new oligonucleotide primers exhibited better specificity when used with environmental samples and were more reliable in comparison with those described in the literature (mcyB-FAA/RAA and mcyA-Cd/FR), which generate false-negative results. The better performance of these new oligonucleotide primers underline the need for designing molecular markers that are well fitted to the regional biological diversity. As this is a fast predictive technique for determining the presence or absence of microcystins, it could be used either alone or in conjunction with other techniques, such as the screening of samples to be sent for quantitative toxicological analysis using HPLC, thereby reducing monitoring cost and time. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012.