The Combination of Amoxicillin and Metronidazole Improves Clinical and Microbiologic Results of One-Stage, Full-Mouth, Ultrasonic Debridement in Aggressive Periodontitis Treatment
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Background: The aim of the present study is to assess clinical, microbiologic, and immunologic benefits of amoxicillin/metronidazole (AM) when performing full-mouth ultrasonic debridement (FMUD) in generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) treatment.Methods: Twenty-four GAgP patients were divided into two groups: the FMUD group (n = 12), which received FMUD plus placebo, and the FMUD+AM group (n = 12), which received FMUD and 375 mg amoxicillin plus 250 mg metronidazole for 7 days. The following clinical outcomes were tested: plague and bleeding on probing indices, pocket probing depth (PD), relative gingival margin position (GMP), and relative clinical attachment level (CAL). Total amount of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Tannerella forsythia (Tf), and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) concentration of interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-1 beta were also determined. All clinical, microbiologic, and immunologic parameters were assessed at baseline and at 3 and 6 months post-therapy. The ANOVA/Tukey test was used for statistical analysis (alpha = 5%).Results: Amoxicillin/metronidazole used as an adjunct to the FMUD protocol added clinical and microbiologic benefits to GAgP treatment (P<0.05). FMUD+AM groups presented an additional PD reduction in initially deep PDs at the 3-month follow-up (3.99 +/- 1.16 mm and 3.09 +/- 0.78 mm for FMUD+AM and FMUD, respectively; P<0.05), a lower number of residual pockets at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups, and a statistical reduction in amounts of Aa (P<0.05). Analysis of Tf and Pg amounts, as well as IL-10 and IL-1 beta GCF concentrations failed to demonstrate a difference between the groups (P>0.05).Conclusion: It may be concluded that amoxicillin/metronidazole improves clinical and microbiologic results of FMUD in GAgP treatment. J Periodontol 2012;83:988-998.