Anti-ulcerogenic and analgesic activities of the leaves of Wilbrandia ebracteata in mice
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Wilbrandia ebracteata (Cogn.) Cogn. is a medicinal plant belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family used popularly as an antiulcer and analgesic medicine. The hydromethanol extract of leaves was investigated to determine its anti-ulcerogenic (ethanol and indomethacin induced gastric damage) and analgesic (writhing and tail-flick tests) activities in mice (efficacy), its acute toxicity (safety), and its phytochemistry (quality control). Oral administration of leaf extract at a dose of 1000 mg/kg body wt. significantly reduced 73.3% of the total area of lesion in ethanol-induced gastric damage, but was inactive in an indomethacin-induced gastric damage test. The hydromethanol extract was also inactive in both analgesic tests. Oral administration of the leaf extract did not produce mortality in mice, while the LD50 value of the roots was 22.10 mg/kg body wt. in female mice and 58.31 mg/kg body wt. in male mice. Leaves of W. ebracteata reacted positively for steroids, flavonols, flavanones, saponins, tannins and xanthones and negative for other compounds, including cucurbitacins. Leaf extract of W. ebracteata was active as an anti-ulcerogenic, probably through increasing gastric defensive factors, and flavonoids might be the main constituent responsible for this activity.
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