Evolução no diagnóstico citológico do câncer de colo uterino - Novas tecnologias para o rastreamento citológico cervical
Alternative titleProgress in the diagnosis of uterine cervix cancer - New technologies to cervical cytologic screening
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The cancer of the uterine cervix remains a serious public health problem in developing countries with low social-economic conditions. Papanicolaou smear has been used to screen women for cervical cancer since 1940, and it is widely recognized as an effective method for preventing cervical cancer. In Brazil, conventional Papanicolaou is the most common method used in diagnosis cytopathological routine, involving the morphological cell analysis by microscopic examination of cervical samples smeared on glass slides. On the other hand, the liquid cytology is an advantageous method whose specimen collected is put into a fluid alcohol based to guarantee the potential use of residual cellular material in cytobrush. Moreover, this method permits additional diagnostic studies, preserving the morphological cell features as the conventional one does. The aim of the present study was report the historical evolution of different cervical cytologic tests, emphasizing the advantages and disadvantages between conventional Papanicolaou method and new technologies in liquid based cytology.