Final state and thermodynamics of a dark energy universe
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As it follows from the classical analysis, the typical final state of a dark energy universe where a dominant energy condition is violated is a finite-time, sudden future singularity (a big rip). For a number of dark energy universes (including scalar phantom and effective phantom theories as well as specific quintessence models) we demonstrate that quantum effects play the dominant role near a big rip, driving the universe out of a future singularity (or, at least, moderating it). As a consequence, the entropy bounds with quantum corrections become well defined near a big rip. Similarly, black hole mass loss due to phantom accretion is not so dramatic as was expected: masses do not vanish to zero due to the transient character of the phantom evolution stage. Some examples of cosmological evolution for a negative, time-dependent equation of state are also considered with the same conclusions. The application of negative entropy (or negative temperature) occurrence in the phantom thermodynamics is briefly discussed.