Larval development of the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii at different ammonia concentrations and pH values
Data de publicação2005-03-01
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The effect of ammonia and pH levels on giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii larvae were evaluated to provide science-based information on safe levels of ammonia and pH for larviculture. Survival rate, developmental stage, and larval weight gain were determined for larvae kept in water with total ammonia (NH4-N) concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg\L and pH 7, 8, and 9. The trials were conducted in two phases: phase 1, larvae from stages I through VIII and phase 2, larvae from stage VIII until metamorphose. Oxygen consumption was determined for larvae in stages I and VIII at total ammonia concentrations of 0, 4, and 8 mg/L and pH 8. Survival rate up to stage VIII varied from 86 to 98% and did not differ for total ammonia concentrations in pH 7 and 8 and for 0 mg/L NH4-N in pH 9. Survival rate was significantly lower (0-20%) for total ammonia concentrations from 1 to 8 mg/L (0.43-3.41 mg/L of unionized ammonia) in pH 9. Larval stage indexes (7.9-8.0 range) and weight gain (1.572-2.931 mg range) of larvae at the end of phase 1 of the experiment did not differ for the different ammonia concentration solutions, but were significantly lower in pH 9. In phase 2, no parameter differed among treatments for pH 7 and 8; however there was total mortality at pH 9 until 96h. Respiration rates diminished when larvae were exposed to total ammonia concentrations of 4 and 8 mg/L (0.28 and 0.55 mg/L of unionized ammonia), but development remained unaltered. Therefore, M. rosenbergii larvae tolerate high levels of total ammonia, while toxicity depends primarily on unionized ammonia concentrations. In addition, alkaline pH (9) acted directly on the larvae, curbing development and causing severe mortality. Larval tolerance to high ammonia and pH levels decreases for the last zoeal stages. © Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2005.