Cyclosporin but not tacrolimus significantly increases salivary cytokine contents in rats
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Background: Cyclosporin (CsA) and tacrolimus (FK-506) are immunosuppressive drugs that specifically inhibit T-cell activation via calcineurin inhibition. Gingival overgrowth is a common side effect following the administration of CsA. The severity of gingival overgrowth seen in patients taking FK-506 is less than that observed with CsA. Little is known about the involvement of saliva in drug-induced gingival overgrowth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the salivary contents of tumor growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as the hystometry of gingival tissue obtained from rats treated with either FK-506 or CsA. Methods: For 30 or 60 days rats received daily subcutaneous injection doses of either CsA or FK-506 (10 mg/kg). The concentrations of TGF-β1, EGF, and IL-6 in saliva were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and after histological processing, the oral epithelium and connective tissue were assessed at the region of the lower first molars. Results: The levels of TGF-β1, EGF, and IL-6 in saliva were not significantly altered by any of the treatments after 30 days. After 60 days of treatment with CsA, gingival overgrowth and significant increase in salivary TGF-β1, EGF, and IL-6 concentrations were observed; no statistically significant changes were induced by FK-506. Conclusion: Within the limits of this experimental study, it can be concluded that CsA, but not FK-506, induced gingival overgrowth associated with an increase of the salivary levels of the cytokines TGF-β1, EGF, and IL-6.
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