Air quality and emissions management in the State of São Paulo, Brazil
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The São Paulo State has 36 million people, 25 million living in three metropolitan areas. Only the São Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR) includes the state capital (São Paulo City) plus 38 cities, where ≈ 18 million people live, affected by frequent episodes of ozone, NOx, and fine particulate matter. In 2003, it was estimated that 15.1% of the SPMR vehicles used ethanol and 70.2% used the local gasoline. Natural gas vehicles have witnessed a booming participation in the last years, mainly through conversion of gasoline cars, and the present fleet is almost one million vehicles. To face the problems generated by light vehicles emissions the Federal Government set a program called PROCONVE - Program of Air Pollution Control from Vehicles - in 1986 and since then until now a significant reduction was reached, but the growth of the fleet hides most of the emission cuts. A discussion covers the evolution of the air pollution management in São Paulo; and innovative tools for air pollution management - both for mobile and stationary sources. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 98th AWMA Annual Conference and Exhibition (Minneapolis, MN 6/21-24/2005).