Heavy metals availability and fractions in soil amended with biosolid composts
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The heavy metals when linked to organic matter have a behavior in the soil that is still little known. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sewage-sludge-based composts when incorporated in the soil, in relation to heavy metals availability. Five composts were incorporated using sugar-cane bagasse, sewage sludge and cattle manure in the respective proportions: 75-0-25, 75-12.5-12.5, 75-25-0, 50-50-0 and 0-100-0 (composts with 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100% sewage sludge). The experiment consisted of 6 treatments (5 composts and a control with mineral fertilization) in randomized blocks with a split-plot design. The control and the treatment of 0% sewage sludge received inorganic nitrogen (N). All the treatments received the same amount of N (8.33 g) K (5.80 g) and K (8.11 g) per pot. Tomato plants were cultivated in 24.0 L pots in a greenhouse in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. The concentrations of heavy metals were determined in the soil samples at day 0 after compost incorporation. The higher the sewage sludge doses, the higher heavy metal contents in the soil. Among extractants, Melhlich-1 extracted the highest amount of heavy metals, while DTPA extracted the lowest one. The residual fraction presented the highest heavy metal content, followed by Fe oxides crystalline and amorphous to Cu, Cr and Mn, and Mn oxides, and Fe amorphous to Zn, indicating strong associations to oxides and clays. There were significant positive correlations between Mn contents in the plant and Mn linked to Fe oxide amorphous and crystalline.