Produção de Brachiaria brizantha e Panicum maximum com milho e adubação nitrogenada
Alternative titleProduction of Brachiaria brizantha and Panicum maximum with corn and nitrogen fertilization
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In places characterized with high temperatures and rain occurrence in great intensity in the summer, but with dry winter, the major limitations for the sustainability of no tillage systems are low production of straw during fall-spring period and the fast decomposition during the rain season. To try to solve the problem, intercropped cultures of grains with forage species has presented reliable results; because offer vegetal covering to the next sowing, giving sustainability to the no tillage system. However, being a recent technology, its needed further studies in different areas involved for this system of production. Thus, this study had the objective 1) to evaluate the production of corn grain at different periods of intercropping with Brachiaria brizantha and Panicum maximum in no tillage system, and 2) aimed to evaluate the performance of forage at different periods of intercropping and the responses to nitrogen fertilization after the harvest of the corn, assessing mass productivity and quality. The experiment was carried out at the Lageado experimental farm, School of Agricultural Sciences, Botucatu campus belonged to São Paulo State University (UNESP) in structuralized Red Nitosol (Afisol). The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications. The treatments were composed for four systems of no tillage involving corn: 1) single corn; 2) corn with Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu intercropped in the sowing; 3) corn with Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu intercropped with the fertilization of covering; 4) corn with Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça intercropped in the sowing and 5) corn with Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça intercropped with the fertilization of covering. After the harvest of the corn, it was applied, in equivalent quantities of nitrogen, ammonium nitrate in covering in doses of 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha-1, determining the forage mass productivity and quality. The simultaneous tillage of corn with P. maximum cv. Mombaça in the sowing compromises the grain productivity. When sowed in intercropping, B. brizantha presents a fiber concentration reduction and greater TDN concentration during the fall-spring period. Regarding benefits of intercropped cultures seeking to use in systems of production like agriculture-pasture integration, the best intercropping to be utilized is corn sown simultaneously with B. brizantha cv. Marandu.