Orbifloxacin: A Review of Properties, Its Antibacterial Activities, Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Characteristics, Therapeutic Use, and Analytical Methods
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Orbifloxacin is a third generation of fluoroquinolone that exhibits increased antibacterial activity against the Enterobacteriaceae, gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, anaerobes, and mycobacteria. This drug was synthesized in 1987 and developed as a veterinary chemotherapeutic to use for livestock and domestic pets. Orbifloxacin is labeled for the treatment of skin, soft tissue, and urinary tract infections in dogs, and skin and soft tissue infections in cats, but in some countries, orbifloxacin has been given for the treatment of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in cattle and swine and other animals. The in vitro activity and clinical efficacy of orbifloxacin against naturally occurring bacterial infections of the skin, ear, soft tissue, udder, and gastrointestinal and respiratory systems in different animals have been evaluated and good responses have been found. The minimum inhibitory concentration of orbifloxacin has been determined in various different pathogens and the results found in the literature are shown in this work. The pharmacokinetics of orbifloxacin has been evaluated by different routes of administration in goats, horses, pigs, rabbits, dogs, cats, camels, cattle, sheep, and fish. Orbifloxacin exhibits excellent pharmacokinetic parameters that suggest that this drug may have good clinical effects on various bacterial infections in these species. All methods described in the scientific literature for determination of orbifloxacin in different matrices were collected and discussed. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.