Improvements of plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) and deposition (PIII&D) processing for materials surface modification
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Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) process is a three dimensional surface modification method that is quite mature and well known to the surface engineering community nowadays, especially to those working in the field of plasma-materials interaction, aiming at both industrial and academic applications. More recently, deposition methods have been added to PIII, the PIII&D, opening possibilities of broader range of applications of these techniques. So, PIII&D is becoming a routine method of surface modification, with the advantage of pushing up the retained dose levels limited by the sputtering due to ion implantation. Therefore, well adherent, thick, three-dimensional films without stress are possible to be achieved, at relatively low cost, using PIII&D. In this paper, we will discuss about a few PIII and PIII&D experiments that have been performed recently to achieve surface improvements in different materials: 1 - high temperature nitrogen PIII in Ti6Al4V alloy in which a deep nitrogen rich treated layer resulted in surface improvements as increase of hardness, corrosion resistance and resistance to wear of the Ti alloy; 2 - nanostructures in ZnO films, obtained by PIII&D of vaporized & ionized Zn source; 3 - combined implantation and deposition of calcium for biomaterial activity of Ti alloy (PIII&D), allowing the growth of hydroxyapatite in a body solution; 4 - magnetron sputtering deposition of Cr that was enhanced by the glow discharge Ar plasma to allow implantation and deposition of Cr on SAE 1070 steel (PIII&D) resulting in surfaces with high resistance to corrosion; and 5 - implantation of nitrogen by ordinary PIII into this Cr film, which improved resistance to corrosion, while keeping the tribological properties as good as for the SAE 1070 steel surface. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
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