Immunological aspects of fresh-frozen allogeneic bone grafting for lateral ridge augmentation
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Objectives: To present some immunological aspects of fresh-frozen allogeneic bone grafting for lateral bone augmentation, based on the quantitative evaluation of IL-10, IL-1β, IFN- γ and TNF- α in patients sera. Material and methods: Thirty-three partially or totally edentulous patients received fresh-frozen allogeneic bone (AL - 20 patients) or autologous bone onlay block grafts (AT - 13 patients) prior to oral implant placement. Blood samples were collected from each patient at various time-points during a 6 month-period (baseline, 14, 30, 90 and 180 days postoperatively). Quantitative evaluation of IL-10, IL-1β, IFN- γ and TNF- α was performed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: For all evaluated markers and at all evaluated periods, inter-group comparisons showed no statistically significant differences between the groups, while the observed values were within normal levels. For AL-treated patients, intra-group evaluation showed statistically significant increase of TNF-α from baseline to 90 (P < 0.001) and 180 (P < 0.01) days, and from 14 to 90 (P < 0.01) and 180 (P < 0.05) days. IFN- γ showed intercalated results, with a decrease from baseline to 14 days (P < 0.05), and increase from 14 to 90 days (P < 0.001) and 180 (P < 0.05) days. No differences between the periods of evaluation were found for the AT group. Conclusions: AL grafting for lateral bone augmentation, similar to AT grafting, does not seem to challenge the immune system significantly. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.