Air-particle abrasion on zirconia ceramic using different protocols: Effects on biaxial flexural strength after cyclic loading, phase transformation and surface topography
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This study evaluated the effect of different air-particle abrasion protocols on the biaxial flexural strength and structural stability of zirconia ceramics. Zirconia ceramic specimens (ISO 6872) (Lava, 3M ESPE) were obtained (N=336). The specimens (N=118, n=20 per group) were randomly assigned to one of the air-abrasion protocols: Gr1: Control (as-sintered); Gr2: 50 μm Al2O3 (2.5 bar); Gr3: 50 μm Al2O3 (3.5 bar); Gr4: 110 μm Al2O3(2.5 bar); Gr5: 110 μm Al2O3 (3.5 bar); Gr6: 30 μm SiO2 (2.5 bar) (CoJet); Gr7: 30 μm SiO2(3.5 bar); Gr8: 110 μm SiO2 (2.5 bar) (Rocatec Plus); and Gr9: 110 μm SiO2 (3.5 bar) (duration: 20 s, distance: 10 mm). While half of the specimens were tested immediately, the other half was subjected to cyclic loading in water (100,000 cycles; 50 N, 4 Hz, 37 °°C) prior to biaxial flexural strength test (ISO 6872). Phase transformation (t→m), relative amount of transformed monoclinic zirconia (FM), transformed zone depth (TZD) and surface roughness were measured. Particle type (p=0.2746), pressure (p=0.5084) and cyclic loading (p=0.1610) did not influence the flexural strength. Except for the air-abraded group with 110 μm Al2O3 at 3.5 bar, all air-abrasion protocols increased the biaxial flexural strength (MPa) (Controlnon-aged: 1030±153, Controlaged: 1138±138; Experimentalnon-aged: 1307±184-1554±124; Experimentalaged: 1308±118-1451±135) in both non-aged and aged conditions, respectively. Surface roughness (Ra) was the highest with 110 μm Al2O3(0.84 μm. FM values ranged from 0% to 27.21%, higher value for the Rocatec Plus (110 μm SiO2) and 110 μm Al2O3 groups at 3.5 bar pressure. TZD ranged between 0 and 1.43 μm, with the highest values for Rocatec Plus and 110 μm Al2O3 groups at 3.5 bar pressure. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
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