Mild cognitive impairment (part 2): Biological markers for diagnosis and prediction of dementia in Alzheimer's disease
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To present a critical review of publications reporting on the rationale and clinical implications of the use of biomarkers for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: We conducted a systematic search of the PubMed and Web of Science electronic databases, limited to articles published in English between 1999 and 2012, and based on the following terms: mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease OR dementia, biomarkers. We retrieved 1,130 articles, of which 175 were reviews. Overall, 955 original articles were eligible. Results: The following points were considered relevant for the present review: a) rationale for biomarkers research in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI); b) usefulness of distinct biomarkers for the diagnosis and prediction of AD; c) the role of multimodality biomarkers for the diagnosis and prediction of AD; d) the role of biomarkers in clinical trials of patients with AD and MCI; and e) current limitations to the widespread use of biomarkers in research and clinical settings. Conclusion: Different biomarkers are useful for the early diagnosis and prediction of AD in at-risk subjects. Nonetheless, important methodological limitations need to be overcome for widespread use of biomarkers in research and clinical settings. © 2013 Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria.