Amphotericin B Microemulsion Reduces Toxicity and Maintains the Efficacy as an Antifungal Product
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Amphotericin B remains the drug of choice for the treatment of most of the systemic fungal infections in immunodeficient patients. Because of the high incidence of adverse drug reactions the clinical use of Amphotericin B is rather limited. To reduce its toxicity new drug delivery systems has been suggested. Nevertheless, these carriers present several technological drawbacks that impair the development of a marketable product. The aim of this work was to develop an Amphotericin B microemulsion in order to increase its efficacy and decrease its toxicity compared to Fungizon (TM), the widely know inexpensive micellar system of Amphotericin B. Amphotericin B loaded microemulsion showed an average size close to 300 nm by photon correlation spectroscopy. In the UV spectrum, the observation of the monomeric peak at 405 nm, which was independent of the sample dilution, revealed that the Amphotericin B molecules were strongly and individually bound to the microemulsion droplets. The new microemulsion formulation had the same efficacy than Fungizon (TM) against C. albicans. Concerning toxicity, Amphotericin B loaded microemulsion showed lower toxicity against human red blood cells compared to the commercial product. Taken together, these results suggested that microemulsion is an eligible drug carrier for Amphotericin B or other water insoluble molecules, and it has potential applications to targeting fungal cells. Additionally, a novel formulation of Amphotericin B-loaded microemulsion was prepared by a straightforward and fast procedure.