Physical research in dynamized systems
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The concept of dynamized medicines is commonly used in homeopathy. As a medical practice, homeopathy is based on clinical observations and experimental assays. In spite of the lack of a credible scientific explanation for its action mechanisms, clinical evidence has been collected since 200 years ago. This paper discusses the most important physical models related to dynamized systems, as well as some perspectives and consequences in studying such systems. While early theories dealt with structural changes in single solvent molecules, modern theories consider collective effects and self-organizing properties. The concept of information was recently introduced to model the capability of a dynamized system to interact with a biological organism, without a molecular agent being needed. The features and limitations of theoretical approaches, as well as experimental results are discussed. (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier B.V. Ltd.