An Exploration into the Bacterial Community under Different Pasteurization Conditions during Substrate Preparation (Composting-Phase II) for Agaricus bisporus Cultivation
Vieira, Fabricio Rocha [UNESP]
Pecchia, John Andrew
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Substrate preparation (i.e., composting) for Agaricus bisporus cultivation is the most critical point of mushroom production. Among many factors involved in the composting process, the microbial ecology of the system is the underlying drive of composting and can be influenced by composting management techniques. Pasteurization temperature at the beginning of phase II, in theory, may influence the bacterial community and subsequently the selectivity and nutrition of the final substrate. Therefore, this hypothesis was tested by simulation in bioreactors under different pasteurization conditions (57 A degrees C/6 h, 60 A degrees C/2 h, and 68 A degrees C/2 h), simulating conditions adopted by many producers. Bacterial diversity, based on 16S ribosomal RNA obtained by high-throughput sequencing and classified in operational taxonomic units (OTUs), was greater than previously reported using culture-dependent methods. Alpha diversity estimators show a lower diversity of OTUs under a high-temperature pasteurization condition. Bacillales order shows a relatively higher OTU abundance under a high-pasteurization temperature, which also was related to high ammonia emission measurements. On the other hand, beta diversity analysis showed no significantly changes in the bacterial community structure under different conditions. Agaricus bisporus mycelium growth during a standard spawn run period was significantly slower in the compost pasteurized at high temperature. Since the bacterial community structure was not greatly affected by different pasteurization conditions but by-products left (e.g., ammonia) at the end of compost conditioning varied, further studies need to be conducted to determine the functional role of the microbial communities found during substrate preparation for Agaricus bisporus cultivation.
Agaricus bisporus, Composting, Bacterial community, Ammonia emission, Metagenomics
Microbial Ecology. New York: Springer, v. 75, n. 2, p. 318-330, 2018.