Detoxification, oxidative stress, and cytogenotoxicity of crack cocaine in the brown mussel Perna perna

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The presence of cocaine and its metabolites and by-products has been identified in different aquatic matrices, making crack cocaine the target of recent studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sublethal effects of crack on the brown mussel Perna perna. Mussels were exposed to three concentrations of crack cocaine (0.5, 5.0, and 50.0 mu g L-1) for 168 h. Gills, digestive glands, and hemolymph were extracted and analyzed after three different exposure times using a suite of biomarkers (EROD, DBF, GST, GPX, LPO, DNA damage, ChE, and lysosomal membrane stability [LMS]). After 48 and 96 h of exposure, EROD, DBF, GST, GPX activities and DNA strand breaks in the gills increased significantly after 48 and 96 h of exposure. Alterations in LMS were also observed in the mussels exposed to all crack concentrations after 96 and 168 h. Our results demonstrated that crack cocaine is metabolized by CYP-like and GST activities in the gills. GPX was not able to prevent primary genetic damage, and cytotoxic effects in the hemocytes were also observed in a dose- and time-dependent response. Our study shows that the introduction of illicit drugs into coastal ecosystems must be considered a threat to marine organisms.




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Environmental Science And Pollution Research. Heidelberg: Springer Heidelberg, v. 26, n. 27, p. 27569-27578, 2019.

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