Xylo-oligosaccharides from lignocellulosic materials: Chemical structure, health benefits and production by chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis

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Carvalho, Ana Flávia Azevedo [UNESP]
Oliva Neto, Pedro de [UNESP]
da Silva, Douglas Fernandes [UNESP]
Pastore, Gláucia Maria
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Currently, there is worldwide interest in the technological use of agro-industrial residues as a renewable source of food and biofuels. Lignocellulosic materials (LCMs) are a rich source of cellulose and hemicellulose. Hemicellulose is rich in xylan, a polysaccharide used to develop technology for producing alcohol, xylose, xylitol and xylo-oligosaccharides (XOSs). The XOSs are unusual oligosaccharides whose main constituent is xylose linked by β 1-4 bonds. The XOS applications described in this paper highlight that they are considered soluble dietary fibers that have prebiotic activity, favoring the improvement of bowel functions and immune function and having antimicrobial and other health benefits. These effects open a new perspective on potential applications for animal production and human consumption. The raw materials that are rich in hemicellulose include sugar cane bagasse, corncobs, rice husks, olive pits, barley straw, tobacco stalk, cotton stalk, sunflower stalk and wheat straw. The XOS-yielding treatments that have been studied include acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis, auto-hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis, but the breaking of bonds present in these compounds is relatively difficult and costly, thus limiting the production of XOS. To obviate this limitation, a thorough evaluation of the most convenient methods and the opportunities for innovation in this area is needed. Another challenge is the screening and taxonomy of microorganisms that produce the xylanolytic complex and enzymes and reaction mechanisms involved. Among the standing out microorganisms involved in lignocellulose degradation are Trichoderma harzianum, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, Penicillium janczewskii, Penicillium echinulatu, Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus awamori. The enzyme complex predominantly comprises endoxylanase and enzymes that remove hemicellulose side groups such as the acetyl group. The complex has low β-xylosidase activities because β-xylosidase stimulates the production of xylose instead of XOS; xylose, in turn, inhibits the enzymes that produce XOS. The enzymatic conversion of xylan in XOS is the preferred route for the food industries because of problems associated with chemical technologies (e.g., acid hydrolysis) due to the release of toxic and undesired products, such as furfural. The improvement of the bioprocess for XOS production and its benefits for several applications are discussed in this study. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis, Lignocellulosic materials, Xylanases, Xylo-oligosaccharides, Acetyl groups, Acid hydrolysis, Agro-industrial residue, Alkaline hydrolysis, Animal production, Aspergillus awamori, Bioprocesses, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, Chemical technologies, Cotton stalk, Endoxylanase, Enzymatic conversions, Enzyme complexes, Food industries, Health benefits, Human consumption, Immune function, Lignocellulose degradation, Lignocellulosic material, Potential applications, Prebiotics, Reaction mechanism, Renewable sources, Rice husk, Soluble dietary fiber, Sugar-cane bagasse, Sunflower stalks, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma reesei, Wheat straws, Xylooligosaccharides, Xylosidase, Aldehydes, Alkalinity, Cellulose, Health, Microorganisms, Sugar substitutes, Enzymatic hydrolysis, Animalia, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus, Hordeum, Hypocrea jecorina, Hypocrea lixii, Nicotiana tabacum, Penicillium, Penicillium janczewskii, Saccharum, Triticum aestivum
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Food Research International, v. 51, n. 1, p. 75-85, 2013.