Stent-Induced Vascular Remodeling in Two-Step Stent-Assisted Coiling Treatment of Brain Aneurysms: A Closer Look into the Hemodynamic Changes during the Stent Healing Period

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2021-03-01

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Stenting has become an important adjunctive tool for assisting coil embolization in complex-shaped intracranial aneurysms. However, as a secondary effect, stent deployment has been related to both immediate and delayed remodeling of the local vasculature. Recent studies have demonstrated that this phenomenon may assume different roles depending on the treatment stage. However, the extent of such event on the intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics is still unclear; especially when performing two-step stent-assisted coiling (SAC). Therefore, we performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the blood flow in four bifurcation aneurysms focusing on the stent healing period found in SAC as a two-step maneuver. Our results show that by changing the local vasculature, the intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics changes considerably. However, even though changes do occur, they were not consistent among the cases. Furthermore, by changing the local vasculature not only the shear levels change but also the shear distribution on the aneurysm surface. Additionally, a geometric analysis alone can mislead the estimation of the novel hemodynamic environment after vascular remodeling, especially in the presence of mixing streams. Therefore, although the novel local vasculature might induce an improved hemodynamic environment, it is also plausible to expect that adverse hemodynamic conditions might occur. This could pose a particularly delicate condition since the aneurysm surface remains completely exposed to the novel hemodynamic environment during the stent healing period. Finally, our study emphasizes that vascular remodeling should be considered when assessing the hemodynamics in aneurysms treated with stents, especially when evaluating the earlier stages of the treatment process.

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Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, v. 143, n. 3, 2021.

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