Quantification of Endotoxins in Infected Root Canals and Acute Apical Abscess Exudates: Monitoring the Effectiveness of Root Canal Procedures in the Reduction of Endotoxins

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Sousa, Ezilmara L. R.
Martinho, Frederico C. [UNESP]
Nascimento, Gustavo G.
Leite, Fabio R. M.
Gomes, Brenda P. F. A.
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Elsevier B.V.
Introduction: This clinical study was conducted to measure the endotoxin levels in infected root canals (RCs) and exudates related to acute apical abscesses (AAAs). In addition, the effectiveness of RC procedures in reducing the endotoxin levels in RCs was monitored. Methods: Paired samples of infected RCs and exudates from AAAs were collected from 10 subjects by using paper points. RCs samples were collected before (RCS1) and after chemomechanical preparation (CMP) (RCS2), after 17% EDTA (RCS3), and after 30 days of intracanal medication (Ca[OH](2) + chlorhexidine) (RCS4). A turbidimetric kinetic limulus amebocyte lysate assay was used for the measurement of endotoxins. Results: Endotoxins were detected in 100% of the baseline samples of AAAs and RCs (RCS1) with median values of 175 EU/mL and 41.5 EU/mL, respectively (P < .05). After CMP (RCS2), endotoxins were reduced to a median value of 0.54 EU/mL (P < .05). Subsequent irrigation with EDTA (RCS3) failed to present a significant effectiveness in reducing the endotoxin levels (median = 0.37 EU/mL) (P = .07). However, intracanal medication for 30 days (RCS4) reduced endotoxins to median values of 0.03 EU/mL (P < .01). Conclusions: The present study revealed a strong association between the high levels of endotoxins found in AAAs and RCs collected from the same tooth. Moreover, the effectiveness of CMP in reducing the endotoxin levels from RCs in acute endodontic infection was improved by the use of RC medication.
Abscess, chemomechanical preparation, endodontics, endotoxins, intracanal medicament
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Journal Of Endodontics. New York: Elsevier Science Inc, v. 40, n. 2, p. 177-181, 2014.