A Prerequisite for Health: Probiotics

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2020-01-01

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Recent advances in microbiome research have made probiotics a promising strategy for the treatment of infectious diseases. The use of probiotics results in numerous advantages for the human health, including the suppression of pathogen colonization, modulation of immune system, and antiinflammatory activity. From the knowledge of the human microbiome, new concepts have risen around the probiotics, which are known as prebiotics, synbiotics, paraprobiotics, and postbiotics. In this chapter, we discuss how probiotics interact with other microorganisms and immune components of the human host, with focus on competitive exclusion of pathogens, production of bioactive compounds, and stimulation of the immune cells and antimicrobial peptides. In addition, we describe current bioengineering techniques for enhancing the functional properties of probiotics targeted at the control of specific pathogens. Finally, several clinical studies are gathered to discuss the protocols for the probiotic applications and their effectiveness in treating gastrointestinal infections, oral diseases, and vulvovaginal candidiasis.

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Microbiomics: Dimensions, Applications, and Translational Implications of Human and Environmental Microbiome Research, p. 225-244.

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